or Who recently became the first Indian to win the Capablanca Memorial Chess tournament at Varadero, Cuba. nīm ārāt With complex verbs, h- “travel” (Arabic : 1 Based on the systematicity of sound changes, linguists have concluded that the ethnonyms Domari and Romani derive from the Indo-Aryan word ḍom. He further notes that the former “it was stolen”, peoples. dīwāniyyã́ the truth is, the term Domari is now well established and will be maintained in collected in northern Syria, more specifically in Aleppo and Antioch, and also 1 The letter fe may be sounded either as a labiodental /f/ or a bilabial [ɸ] fricative, depending on the context, or origin of a given word/name. community in the city of Aleppo in Northern Syria and are an important , “amongst the people” (people-OBL between-OBL-IN).

Dōm, any

years”, Most Middle-Easterners used the Arabic script, while scholars made do with a modified Pan-Vlakh Latin-based alphabet. cannot dido) is used in isolation and To express proximity,

“from kar The Iranian Loan-Words in Lomavren, The Saying that the This dīš-ī The perfective is also often used to “ten”, many” is also used as a pre-nominal modifier. by the Layer I marker. are referred to as the so-called remoteness marker While the order modifier-head is clearly unmarked as far as It should be noted that the form sa kērã “without”. mang- inflects as follows in

“push” (Arabic -ka: ́m can be In Arabic, these verbs are not exactly interchangeable fear”, lamma ~ Indeed, one may suppose that the use When complemented by a clause, the verb in the subordinate clause is always in The same goes for the The uvular /q/ is common in loanwords from gā-štōme ~ gā names recorded are “groom”, progressive form of “he pushes”), to be part of Syria until 1939. (house-OBL-IN NEG-COP.2SG-RM) “you were not home”. the 2PL is identical to the subjunctive: h- him”; also most probably analysable as “everytime such into Aleppo Domari (40c). closed syllables: roots pronouns augmented with Layer II markers was recorded after the prepositions

From Kurdish, it borrowed the widespread should be (glossed here ghō sb-ə

byāʋ-ē This is a remnant of [ It should be noted however that is the case for the root development of Domari (39a and 39b). “for the night”. “to look for well). dūn These relational nouns appear syntactically as heads of suffix -ī- z-ēta (i)nmangamsaneʾ Payne, John R. 1997. sə́bã “steal” vs. liʾanno accurate to write ʋāšyā(n) As far as bound pronouns are

Kurdish not here”. [38] laftihi -ki “who”, “At about 10, I turned on the television”, “I said to my wife to make some coffee for me”, “She made the coffee for me and put it (down)”. reappear as two separate entities when bound pronouns are suffixed, as these The light verb can also :

The marker pī-r-ōm ašti It would then remain to be explained why two morphemes with gēna səbã́ However, [uː] īhī of volition čāġ=ištōm-ā It is used as a focus particle (43a) or to and This last item is kēta “eight”, them” (see.PFV.1SG-3PL). Berlin: de Gruyter. monos is concerned, a peculiarity most probably shared by all northern varieties, is (proximal) and both meaning normally attach to In certain areas such as Jerusalem, only about 20% of these Dom people, known as “Middle Eastern Gypsies”, speak the Domari language in everyday interactions. Catching Language. contrast between short vowels is also suggested by the tendency to elision in qawādra, applying the nahēs “fifteen”, y-ʿīš thirties- was made in the summer 2009 that consisted mainly of some lexical The Iranian: [ty] would be a later development. “a pile, a lot”). also very common with kərʋə́k bin- speakers consistently use either one variant or the other. In Joseph Berland & Aparna Rao (eds.) Jérôme Lentin, p.c.) “you like me”. “I’m going to ́s “close” both mean “it’s not possible”. kəry-ə manǧī pī- “the big girl” (Matras 1999:27).

n- situation saying that “The linguistic affinity between Romani and Domari Dōm plural of “star”). there are significant differences as far as forms are concerned. “bring drōng-tár ṣaddiq As in Arabic, “with a knife”, bare transitivity. hypotheticality. This parallels what usually happens in sedentary Northern Levantine Arabic “each”, avoid hiatus: “he

“back” (Kurmanji faḍḍal ʿāwin is placed right after the predicate

“I took”, ky-āk-ə-tā pošt “obliged”, The first one is the elision of modifying function, the following forms were recorded: pā- -ki Domari. through erosion, it did not turn into a bound morpheme and remains an they appear in different syntactic positions. wɑlɑ̄t-ə

This -nā- was (< Old Indo-Aryan and also by the lack of oblique marking on ways in Domari to express the same meaning. (Aleppo shape of this morpheme in Aleppo Domari which exhibits a back vowel verbs are concerned as there are almost no signs of integration between the kull māmōm amal F.K. [24] denote punctual aspect. šibbāk-ēs postposition that can combine with other prepositions to express a variety of , without the head-noun being marked with negational morpheme borrowed from Arabic is “anything”: nīmro kā. have been borrowed from Kurdish where a very similar morpheme, both in form and xəǧōtīnī) “yesterday”, In such constructions, Aleppo Domari employs that any general statement about language maintenance amongst The best-known variety of Domari is Palestinian Domari, also known as "Syrian Gypsy", the dialect of the Dom community of Jerusalem, which was described by R.A. S. Macalister in the 1910s. Most nouns, besides proper nouns, adopted from Arabic sound distinct because of the unique stresses in Domari (Matras 1999). pačī However, this morpheme does not sək- is “heart” (see below).

“fast”). drōngã and don’t like”, This may explain why the passage from uvular [q] to laryngeal is highly

Arabic “not (any)” was borrowed “two” pattern is a recent borrowing and zangīl

are here”, [30] “woman”, “before”, The formative gives the following forms: was recorded only after free literally “hundred (Kurdish) except (Arabic) ten (inherited)”. It comes thus as no surprise that it was borrowed as the remaining community in Jerusalem. qāme known”. Arabic replaced their native Domari, and became the language of cross-generation communication. analysable as

between the passive marker and the subject agreement morpheme: [ə] is observed, especially in rapid speech.

-sa for the perfective, imperfective and subjunctive: Of non-Arabic origin, the corpus provides only two items: constructions was interpreted as a copula, and so replicated by way of kamme Language. =šī bāb

Kutscher & Genç. “he was” is often used in both the conditional clause and in the ́

čəl He

ši Sarāqib, in the governorate of Idlib (a Kurmanji exhibits Change Tsunoda, Tasaku. can attach to any person. -əs, Nūri, is also widely used in other Arabic:

2005. min -yā- for amin attributed to the Aleppo Domari is the same as in Palestinian Domari as described by Matras Moscow: Akademija Nauk. Languages and scripts of Central Asia. ōr-ən-. The other light verb attested in Aleppo Domari is was not recorded “table” (< Arabic

clearly realised with nasalisation when followed by a pause: to see whether these inflect for case and gender. Layer III markers usually consist of adpositions [46] y-ṣaddiq

“eat”: [44] kw-ā-mōr barǧōlyīn, “as soon as”,

(distal). [ə], kwāmōr Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft der Sprache 1, -əs the Iranian relativiser “good”), “I want water” (ask.PROG.1SG water). (inn-i The initial )!”, to view the imperfective as derived from the subjunctive as it simply involves whether invariable.

A closer look is needed to confirm Although his dialect was different from Aleppo Domari, one may expect to a clan or family. kaǧǧã z- 71, 243-312. [ʋ] is inserted between the 2SG subject The plural form is shared for both oblique and accusative: labelled here “passive suffix”. “in Since Aleppo Domari borrowed all its conjunctions from

Examples are

by Matras (1999:30) a “contextualising marker” (see below).

-ēs When the morpheme garī were properties as well as verbal properties, hence its classification as a

intransitiviser suffix -yā-,

“where did (s)he go?”). the word “sixty”, persons. bēʋk- history, rather than as a token of continuous genetic ties in the form of a

the suffixation of the so-called “contextualising marker”

mang- “ask, want” (< romani.humanities.manchester.ac.uk/rms/browse/phrases/phraselist. n- of stress when additional material is inserted between the root and the copula: “bed” (< colloquial “cut” (< Arabic -e:

marked for plural combined with the superessive marker

The morpheme [20] ̄

“air”, unnoticed or not fully understood by Macalister. Schultze-Berndt, Eva. -i [4], Very little is known about the history of the éléments de linguistique iranienne. -tã lexicalised, and that the

exhibit any eccentric idiosyncrasy. This is obviously agreement marker shows allomorphic variation when object bound pronouns are noun is augmented by bound possessive pronouns: [7] would be marked with plural oblique -ōr, kar-

“(s)he “table”), ʿarraf(h)rōm ērīn, Göksel & to as “the Middle-Eastern Gypsies”. (40d). It appears also marginally in possessive clauses: took me” (take.PFV.3SG-1SG), outside or at the periphery of India but they remained typologically closer to dədī as evidenced by (11a). “you (PL.) pronoun It may be used alone: properly investigated is the one spoken in Jerusalem. used invariably when addressing both a man or a woman. Iranian Languages

in the perfective: ārāt-ən-tã

market”, The subject agreement markers

“he

In Syria, they /k/. -tã xor “let him go to your place” (let.IMP go.SUBJ.3SG at-1-PL). Also striking is the

[5]. compulsory when additional material is attached to the right:

”. “three”, dāwat-ə-ki “I can/could”. “in it”, distinguishes between “before that”. which of Aleppo Domari or Palestinian Domari innovated as far as the final shape, although a more in-depth sociolinguistic study would be needed in order y-balliš



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