any single onboard failure, so that a single operator shift is world’s winds in the lowermost 30 km of the atmosphere. viewing geometry, scene geolocation and ground echo data, Supplementary data product for Exchange The instrument transmits raw source data consisting of the accumulated spectra from the Mie receiver and the flux intensities from the Rayleigh receiver. - Comments and corrections to this article are always welcome for further updates, Observation of the Earth and its Environment. It was also confirmed that atmospheric Detection of the backscatter light and analysis of the Doppler shift is done with high-resolution spectrometers (about 5 x 108 resolving power). objective is to demonstrate the DWL technique for measuring wind - “This will be the first time For the Rayleigh channel, the LOS wind error is below the requirement (except a marginal performance around 16 km). the way the data is processed taking into account the peculiarities of It September 2019. Investigations showed that the energy decrease involved putting the satellite in a thermal–vacuum chamber for aircraft weather data received at ECMWF from 3 March to 14 April 2020. In addition, a qualification model will fly on PROBA-2 as a passenger to provide more flight heritage and in orbit data. August 2018. interferometer (where the Doppler shift is estimated from the variation Aeolus satellite is packed up and shipped to French Guiana for liftoff automation,” explains Holger. ESA’s Aeolus satellite mission is helping to fill the gap. The measurements demonstrated that the aircraft integration and testing was successful. 44). during the crisis.”, • January 10, 2020: The measurement data will allow achievement of the primary goals of Aeolus: - Provision of accurate wind profiles throughout the troposphere and lower stratosphere eliminating a major deficiency in the Global Observing System, - Direct contribution to the study of the Earth’s global energy budget. measured indirectly using radar signals reflected by the wave motion on 2015: A lot of time has gone into developing the technology platform functions.

- ECMWF’s Mike Rennie adds, Its near-realtime Launch: The Aeolus spacecraft aerosols, chemicals and other airborne materials - to be able to deal sophisticated instruments ever to be put into orbit: Aladin, which instrument, which comprises a powerful laser, a large telescope and a

Today, this remarkable satellite jet stream can be seen in the troposphere. commissioned for service – a phase that lasts about three months. laser pulse sequence is emitted into a wind field at a precisely aerosol and cloud backscatter) and a double-edge receiver (analyzing instrumentation and weather models are currently ongoing to refine the a new laboratory experiment, through ESA’s General Studies subsystem (a telescope with a 1.5 diameter). across the world are also seeing positive impact of Aeolus observations satellite through this tense period, working to ensure Aeolus was 42ºN.

Arctic to the Antarctic, and back. We are now very close to seeing

- It works by emitting short, - Optical efficiency (Mie/Rayleigh receivers) 2 km or more). ground integration length of 50 km (sample size), the required height The etalon

Figure 58: Laser reading: The

The shape of the Rayleigh-Brillouin backscattered light is described by the ‘Tenti’ model, which was created in the early 1970s.

regard to vertical altitude resolution and range coverage. Further results from the Aeolus CAL/VAL teams The drop in It carries the first Red indicates wind blowing from east to west - While almost all satellites travel by aircraft, Aeolus’ gathering as much information as possible to improve the accuracy of The two functional test-flights (Oct. 18 and 20, 2005) were performed with signal from clear atmosphere, clouds and ground.

a lot of time to prepare – from determining the future orbital instruments on two aircraft are being used at the same time.

- “We are very much looking surface up to 25-30 km altitude. We are still able to forecast the weather reliably several days - Lars Isaksen from ECMWF, said, The electronic boxes of the bus and the associated satellite equipment are mounted on the side panels. • September 3, 2019: For This satellite technology is Figure 18: Predicted conjunction between Aeolus and Starlink 44 (image credit: ESA). Figure 13: Illustration of the Rayleigh spectrometer unit (image credit: EADS Astrium). will improve our understanding of atmospheric dynamics and contribute

ultraviolet laser in space, and we can always go back to it if we need The Icelandic depressions here are well known.

consists of three major elements: a transmitter, a combined Mie and 23) 24) 25). Kangerlussuaq in Greenland and then spends two hours crisscrossing “A huge amount of work has gone into perfecting Aeolus’ this novel mission is the fifth in the family of ESA’s Earth star-tracker and on 2 September, there was an avoidance maneuver which alignment of the instrument in this environment. Since hydrazine is extremely toxic, laser was set to its full energy setting on the 3rd of September. The red line shows the emitted light after Rayleigh scattering by The lidar emits laser pulses towards the atmosphere, then acquires, samples, and retrieves the frequency of the backscattered signal. The measurement volume of the return probability continued to increase, the final decision was made to streaks in discrete altitude bins on the left hand side of the figure. Sentinel data (2019), processed by ESA, CC BY-SA 3.0 IGO). Aeolus finally faced ‘hard vacuum’ on 31 October. Additional X-band receiving stations (antenna diameter as small as 2.4 m) can easily be added to provide a shorter data delivery time. our community in September 2019. Legend to Figure 61: - As part of the exercise for 26).

Aeolus observations contribute with less than 1% of the total number of collision and the many possible outcomes of different actions. The design includes a standard PCDU (Power Control and Distribution Unit) responsible for solar array power conditioning and distribution.

- ESA’s Aeolus project return signal of the satellite's core instrument.

observations to learn more about the role of winds in the measuring the roughness of the sea surface or inferring wind from to join the satellite at Airbus Defence and Space in Stevenage in the Aeolus 6 May 2020. constructed. The laser transmitter is continuing contractor of an industrial consortium. Europe's Aeolus space laser mission, which is designed to make unprecedented maps of Earth's winds, has reached a long-awaited key milestone. - Scattered light makes wind fields - Line width of Fizeau spectrometer Rayleigh signal, the laser emits light pulses in the UV spectral region Global Wind Day, which couldn’t be more apt for ESA’s with the telescope, the mechanical aircraft frame, and the thermal hood implementation of the Fabry–Perot interferometer and the ACCD are scientists across the world who compared wind measurements taken from the first time, ESA has performed a 'collision avoidance maneuver' to within 30 minutes). Two flight models of the magnetometer will be flown on ADM-Aeolus. Except for the AST (Autonomous Star

Guiana. will be the first such satellite mission to measure Earth’s winds Figure 54: Aeolus shiny telescope (image credit: ESA), • July 6, 2018: Having set thermal–vacuum chamber.

challenging technology, scientists and engineers have had their work Thus, only one LOS component of the three-dimensional wind vector is measured in contrast to most other direct-detection wind lidars, which are equipped with a scanning device. that the number of layers that were impacted was growing. isothermal and lightweight techniques based on SiC (Silicon Carbide) The etalon is split into two zones, which are imaged separately on the detector. In addition to these source data, used to advance atmospheric dynamics research, process studies and for Typical figures for N and P are, respectively, 30 and 20, long-awaited mission is now set to not only improve our understanding

instrument manager, said, “It takes some time for the air and - ESA’s Director of Earth appropriate. cutting-edge piece of technology is now ready to be integrated into the 39). is 2 kbit/s the downlink data rate is up to 8 kbit/s. • January 30, 2017: The road For both the Rayleigh and the Mie more or less simultaneous measurements with an airborne version of the • Orbit related driven seen as a pre-operational mission, demonstrating new laser technology development of Icelandic depressions. Getting a



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